A 1.544 Mbps dedicated digital circuit provided by the telephone companies to connect to the internet. The monthly cost is typically comprised of the local loop, which connects a company’s office to the telecom providers’ internet equipment. The other major monthly cost is the port charge to provide access to the telecom providers’ internet backbone.
Digital Subscriber Line(DSL) is a technology that significantly increases the digital capacity of ordinary telephone lines into the home or office. DSL speeds are based on the distance between the customer and telco central office. There are two main categories. Asymmetric DSL (ADSL) is used for Internet access, where fast downstream is required, but slow upstream is acceptable. Symmetric DSL (SDSL, HDSL, etc.) is designed for connections that require high speed in both directions. Many carriers are also using DSL for private data connections on MPLS networks, which saves companies money from installed costly T1 connections.
Ethernet is a network communication standard capable of handling large amounts of data at speeds of 10 Mbps or 100 Mbps, and at up to 1500 bytes per packet. The specification uses an open protocol at the Application layer and is especially popular for control applications
A technology that uses glass (or plastic) threads (fibers) to transmit data. A fiber optic cable consists of a bundle of glass threads, each of which is capable of transmitting messages modulated onto light waves.
Fiber optics has several advantages over traditional metal communications lines:
- Fiber optic cables have a much greater bandwidth than metal cables. This means that they can carry more data.
- Fiber optic cables are less susceptible than metal cables to interference.
- Fiber optic cables are much thinner and lighter than metal wires.
- Data can be transmitted digitally (the natural form for computer data) rather than analogically.
- The main disadvantage of fiber optics is that the cables are expensive to install. In addition, they are more fragile than wire and are difficult to splice.
Fiber optics is a particularly popular technology for local-area networks. In addition, telephone companies are steadily replacing traditional telephone lines with fiber optic cables. In the future, almost all communications will employ fiber optics.
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